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## R Language

This is the second article of two part article series on handling date and time data in R. You can read the first article here. When date and time data are imported into R they will often default to a...

A time series is a list of observations ordered successively over time. In a time series, observations are often recorded at evenly-spaced intervals, such as daily, weekly, monthly, and so on. This is...

String manipulation refers to the process of modifying, analyzing, or transforming strings, into useful form for analysis. This is a fundamental aspect of programming and is used in various...

Character vectors in R are used to store text data. R also provides a variety of built-in functions to deal with character vectors. Perhaps the most basic thing we can do with texts is to view them. R...

Heatmaps are used to show relationships between two variables, one plotted on each axis. By observing how cell colors change across each axis, you can observe if there are any patterns in value for...

A line chart, connects a series of data points using a line. Line chart also displays sequential values to help you identify trends. In business, Line chart is widely used to display the time series...

In R, for loop is used to repeat evaluating an expression with an iterator on list or vector. In practice, for loop is almost the last choice because an alternative way is much cleaner and easier to...

when starting to use R, most R users use loops whenever they need to iterate over elements of vector, list or data frame. For e.g. if we are interested in the mean of all the numeric columns of the...

Histograms and Density Plots show the distribution of the data. We can also show the distribution of a data using few critical points in the data set. These critical points are called as quantile...

Bar charts are used to show the comparison of numeric values of a categorical variable. For e.g. sale of different products in financial year. Here Sale is numeric value and product name is...

Frequency histograms are useful when you want to get an idea about the distribution of values in numeric variable. The hist() function takes a numeric vector as its main argument. To construct a...

Summarizing your data, either numerically or graphically, is an important component of any data analysis. Fortunately, R has excellent graphics capabilities and can be used whether you want to produce...

In business, perhaps the most widely used file format to store the data is the excel workbook. An excel workbook contains tables which can easily perform calculations. Just as CSV file can be imported...

The first step in any kind of data analysis in R is to load the data, that is, to import a dataset into the R Environment. There are variety of data files you can import into R, which includes: Among...

When you wanted to import the text file in R, you must have used read.table() function. But do you know that you can pass on more than 20 different arguments to read.table() function? You must have...

When the new data is presented to you for the analysis, you would like to get first hand information on the data set before diving deep into analysis. This is similar to doing a warm up exercises...

R packages are extensions to the R programming language. R packages contain code, data, and documentation in a standardized collection format that can be installed by users of R, typically via a...

In R, a list is an ordered collection of objects, like vector, but lists can actually combine objects of different types. List elements can contain any type of object that exists in R...

The factor data type is used to represent character data. This character data, however takes a small number of distinct values. Each distinct value is represented by a integer code, which is called as...

A data frame represents a data with a number of rows and columns. Unlike matrix, data frames can contain variables with different data types, therefor Data Frames are heterogeneous...

In R, matrix is a vector with two additional attributes, the number of rows and the number of columns. Since vectors are the building blocks of matrices, like vectors, matrices are also constrained to...

The first step in learning R programming is getting familiar with basic R objects and their structure. The fundamental data object in R is a vector. In this article we will define the R objects...

This is the second post in the “Getting Started with R Programming” series. In the previous post, we discussed the processes for getting the R programme from the CRAN website. We also...

In this blog we will install R (for Windows and Mac OS) and have a quick tour of R environment...

R, as a programming language, has been evolving and developing over the last 20 years. Its goal is quite clear to make it easy and flexible to perform comprehensive statistical computing, data...